Sadly, many women we talk to have been disrespected by Christian men in authority, especially in the local church context.

Some years ago Kristi and I were leading a midweek seminar at a Bible church. Our topic was discipleship to Jesus and personal soul care. There were about twenty people attending. I opened our meeting with prayer, introduced our topic, and made some comments from the Bible. Then Kristi shared her insights with a personal example.

Right after she stood up to speak a man abruptly got up from his chair and left the room in a fuss, shaking his head and muttering under his breath.

As Kristi continued speaking, the man’s wife kept turning around to see if he was coming back. Soon she picked up her purse and left too. Later she contacted us, “I’m sorry we left your talk. My husband believes it’s not Biblical for a woman to teach in church when men are present.”

This was quite demeaning of Kristi and women in general. Though I don’t imagine that any of the church’s elders or pastors would’ve walked out on Kristi, their official church doctrine supports the belief behind doing that. They do not allow women pastors, elders, or preachers/teachers; they limit women to roles like pastor’s wife, admin staff, hostess, women’s ministry leader, teacher of children, or deaconess.

These elders are sincere and not intending to be sexist or disrespectful of women, but that’s the effect they’re having. 

We’ve heard from many women who have been discriminated against in church leadership. When a church doesn’t welcome qualified women into leadership it’s damaging to the identity and dignity of women and girls and it affects how they’re treated by men and boys. Furthermore, it can damage the whole church or organization. 

Women bring spiritual depth, nurture, relational skill, integrative thinking, and tender-courage that often are lacking in all-male leadership groups. Women tend to be high in emotional intelligence, which is key to success in any endeavor, especially in ministry. 

In my experience of working with pastors and church leadership the absence of qualified women at the leadership table has also contributed to unjust terminations of pastors, harmful church splits, and dysfunctional team dynamics.

Typically, churches that hold women back from eldership or other leadership roles cite two controversial New Testament passages to support their view: 1 Corinthians 11:3 and 1 Timothy 2:11-12. But they take a narrow view on those verses and don’t give adequate weight to a number of other Scriptures that do support female leadership in the church and elsewhere. 

Increasingly, women and men are simply refusing to attend churches that hold women back. It makes no logical sense that a woman could lead the board of a Fortune 100 company, be the President of the United States, or be endorsed as a high-level spiritual leader in the Bible, but not serve as an official leader in a church. 

To be clear, there are many Christian men and women who have high regard for women and yet believe the Bible teaches that church elders/leaders should be restricted to men. Kristi and I have participated in churches like this. Many of the pastors we engage with and respect currently hold this view.

We don’t want to disparage these men in authority, but our hope and prayer is that they will prayerfully reconsider their position and make room for godly and gifted women in the board room and executive staff. 

It’s powerful when a Christian leadership team models shared male and female leadership. This is a key value of Soul Shepherding because it greatly amplifies the person and message of Christ. 

Thankfully, many Christ-honoring churches and ministries do a great job of honoring women in leadership.

Why Many Churches Don’t Let Women Teach or Lead

In 1 Timothy 2:11-12 Paul says, “A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent.” (NIV)

Similarly, in 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 he says, “Women should remain silent in the churches. They are not allowed to speak, but must be in submission, as the Law says. If they want to inquire about something, they should ask their own husbands at home; for it is disgraceful for a woman to speak in the church.” (NIV)

How do you interpret these verses? A straightforward, literal reading of these texts, does seem to support that a church should not have women pastors or elders. On this matter, I’ve heard elders say, “This is the Lord’s commandment!” or “It’s the clear teaching of the New Testament.”

But there are many evangelical Christian church denominations that do not interpret these Bible passages to restrict women from leadership; they ordain women as pastors and install them as elders or overseers: Presbyterian, Methodist, Assemblies of God and other Pentecostal traditions, Friends (Quaker), certain Baptist and Lutheran groups, some nondenominational churches, Evangelical Covenant, and the Reformed Church in America (RCA). In fact, a number of years ago I was blessed to serve as a Spiritual Formation Pastor at an RCA church under the leadership of a woman Senior Pastor.

Soul Shepherding, Inc, the 501c3 nonprofit ministry to pastors and leaders that my wife Kristi and I started in 2009 is in the latter camp. Currently, three of the seven members on our Board of Directors are women. Their leadership gifts, wisdom, courage, discernment, empathy, and prayerfulness, along with those of the men, has been essential to the stability and growth of our ministry. Also in our Soul Shepherding Institute for pastors and leaders, Kristi and I co-lead all aspects and we train as many women as men.

Throughout our lives, Kristi and I have been thankful to affiliate with Bible-based, evangelical Christian churches. Also, I’ve taken seminary classes at the conservative Talbot Theological Seminary (as part of my training toward a doctorate in psychology). But on the issue of women in leadership, we disagree with the churches who don’t give qualified women equal access to serve as pastors, elders/overseers, and leaders in other capacities. (To reiterate what I said above, we respect there are intelligent and compassionate evangelical Christian leaders and Bible scholars who are following their understanding of the Bible and their conscience by limiting the church leadership roles for women.)

This article draws on the evangelical Christian Biblical scholarship of Dallas Willard, N.T. Wright, Scot McKnight, and others to suggest that spokespersons for Christ who use 1 Timothy 2 and 1 Corinthians 14 to block women from church leadership may be misinterpreting these texts and/or neglecting to give sufficient weight to other relevant Bible passages. These scholars make a strong case that by studying the Biblical and cultural context of those verses, along with drawing on the whole counsel of God’s Word, we find significant support for qualified women being given opportunities to serve in church leadership.

Before we investigate some key Bible passages, let’s consider some philosophical, cultural, and hermeneutical issues.

Male and Female Roles: Complemenatrian or Egalitarian?

There are two main camps of Christians in the gender battle over leadership in the Church (also as it relates to marriage and family).

In the complementarian view, the Bible teaches that men and women are unique and designed differently by God. They are considered of equal value and status but they have different functions in the family and church. Men are created by God for headship (which they define as leadership) roles and women for submissive (supportive) roles. While women may assist in a decision-making process the ultimate authority rests with the man. In these families typically the father is the wage-earner and the mother is more focused on the children.

In most conservative Bible churches the complementarian paradigm is on display. The pastors and elders are all men because women are not eligible to serve in these roles. Even the guest speakers are always or almost always men. Or if a missionary couple is introduced or makes a report at the church the man is the designated leader and does all or most of the talking. Wives are in a supporting role.

For qualified men to lead in ministry and their wives to support them is a beautiful and godly thing! Along these lines, a special focus of Soul Shepherding is to care for pastors’ wives.

The main contrasting view to complementarian male and female roles is the egalitarian view. Here the belief is that God’s plan and the Bible’s teaching is that men and women are equal not only in value and status but also in the work they can do. They have equal authority in decisions and any role in society, including church, is open to either. Male and female distinctions are still honored, but that doesn’t limit either’s opportunities to serve in particular leadership roles or to exercise authority.

For churches operating with an egalitarian paradigm, you’ll regularly see gifted women preachers bringing the Word of God to the church. The lead pastor may be a woman and in larger churches, some of the pastors, executives, and elders will be women. When a missionary couple is invited onto the church stage to be prayed over the women might be a co-leader with her husband or the called leader who is being supported by her husband.

We understand Peter’s teaching on spiritual leadership in church ministry (“overseers”) in 1 Peter 5:1-11 to apply to men and women humbling themselves under Christ and being servant leaders for the sake of the church and its ministry to the surrounding community. An important point is that Peter focuses elders not on governing or ruling the church, but on ministry to people. In some churches, elders run the church like the Wizard of Oz behind the curtain. They have power over the pastors and the governance of the church (and possibly micromanaging the church staff and operations), even though they’re not directly involved in servant ministry to people in the church and community. Their qualifications for leadership are mostly about giftedness, business success, money, and powerful personalities.

Dallas Willard on the Need For Women Leaders in Church

Dallas Willard, a longtime distinguished USC philosopher and a thought leader in Christian spiritual formation who was a personal mentor to me for a decade before he died in 2013, has some common sense wisdom to offer on this issue. When he was asked to write a chapter in the book How I Changed My Mind and Women in Leadership he declined because he said he’d always believed in women as church leaders. He did write the foreword and in it he shared:

All through my young life [growing up in Baptist churches in Missouri] those who had taught me most “at church” were women. Actually, I knew that, in many cases, there would have been no church at all if it hadn’t been for women; and, beyond church, life in my environment was mainly anchored in strong and intelligent women who — often with little or nothing in the way of “credentials” — simply stood for what was good and right and directed others in the way of Christ.

Of course I knew that in my church the “official” pastors were men, but the issue of women teaching men and “preaching” had not hardened in that time and place, and, if need required — as was frequently the case — certain women could do very well at “bringing the message.” Also, I was fortunate to be in significant contact with Wesleyan and Holiness tendencies where women were in leadership roles — quite “officially.”

Dallas indicated that as he grew older and studied the Bible it became clear to him that the Biblical passages that seemed to prohibit women from preaching were not giving general principles for us today. He said it is “a very weak hermeneutic” to use these passages to deprive women of leadership opportunities. Instead, in these texts, Paul is primarily teaching that Christ-followers are to be “all things to all people” (1 Corinthians 9:19) in order to bring salvation to as many people as possible.

Dallas lamented that he was “saddened at how much hurt and harm can be imposed through warping the Gospel and its ministry into cultural legalism in the name of God.”

He cautions, “What we lose by excluding the distinctively feminine from ‘official’ ministries of teaching and preaching is of incalculable value. That loss is one of a few fundamental factors which account for the astonishing weakness of ‘the Church’ in the contemporary context.”

Dallas gives three reasons why he believes that it’s good for women to serve as leaders in churches:

1. God Gives Ministry Gifts to Women

“There is no suggestion whatsoever in scripture or the history of Christ’s people that the gifts of the Spirit are distributed along gender lines.” He says that if this idea had been on the mental horizon of the inspired authors they certainly would’ve made that clear. Tragically, sometimes women have gifts that are needed in the body, but they’re not free to use them while men are allowed to serve in leadership roles that they’re not supernaturally gifted for.

2. The Issue is Not Rights and Equality, but Obligation

“People simply are not equal when it comes to their talents, to their ministerial gifts, or to their experiences with God.” He believes that to proceed as if everyone is equal is a secular model that reduces God’s power to equip particular people in special ways. Actually, what establishes the terms for women to be leaders in serving God and their neighbors “is their obligation to do so… which derive from their human abilities empowered by divine gifting. It is the good they can do… which impels them to serve in all ways possible.”

3. Excluding Women Implies Something is Wrong With Them

“If God indeed excludes women from leadership of the Church, there must be some reason why he does. What could it be?” he asks. “And if leadership, speaking, etc. is good work, and work manifestly in need of good workers, what, exactly, is it about a woman that God sees and says: ‘That won’t do.’ Or did he just flip a coin and men won? This line of questioning of course affects all women.”

(Dallas Willard, Article/Foreword to How I Changed My Mind About Women in Leadership by Alan F. Johnson, Zondervan, 2010)

A Young Woman in Saudi Arabia Becomes a Jesus Follower

To help us understand the cultural backdrop of Paul’s teaching on the role of women in the first century Church let’s consider pastor Mike Eerie’s “thought experiment” on what it’s like to be a woman in Saudi Arabia.

In Saudi Arabia in ancient times, and to a lesser extent in modern times, the customs are that a woman is supposed to wear clothes that fully cover her body whenever she goes out in public. When she goes to a restaurant she’s required, not just by custom, but by law to have a male guardian accompany her. If she wants to go to her job, go to college, or travel away from her home town she needs official permission from her male authority or she can be arrested!

Now, imagine a wealthy Saudi young woman who goes to a Christian small group and becomes a follower of Jesus. She learns that the Bible says to her: “There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” (Galatians 3:28) She discovers that as a woman God has set her free from oppressive Muslim laws. She has equal opportunities as men. She can dress and move about as she wants.

For her to start dressing in a freer way is not a crime in her country and so she begins to do that. But it’s offensive to people and so the religious police correct her. They say that she’s undermining traditional Islamic values because she became a Christian! They fear that other young women will follow her bad example.

If you were her pastor writing a letter to her and her Christian community how would you counsel them? What would you say about her freedom of dress bringing disrepute to the name of Christ?

You’d ask her and the other women to submit to the restrictive dress code for the sake of the gospel. You’d exhort her that it’s actually an honor to hide her beauty in order to display the glorious beauty of Christ Jesus. At the same time, you’d tell Saudi fathers not to oppress their daughters and Saudi husbands to love their wives sacrificially and to value them as equal partners. (For instance, Paul in Titus 2:5 teaches wives “to be subject to their husbands, so that no one will malign the word of God.”)

That’s what it was like in first-century Rome. They had household codes that were culturally enforced and to disobey them was to be anti-family. There was a lot of fear about the “new Roman women” who wanted to prove that they could have sexual freedoms like men and that this would destroy family and culture. Christian freedom could be seen as divisive.

So Paul and Peter in their shepherding of female followers of Jesus asked them to follow the household codes, even though that restricted their God-given freedom so that their behavior and appearance would not detract from their witness for Jesus. Yet at the same time, they planted the seeds of overthrowing the culture that oppressed women and children by challenging the men (which was not done) to restrict their desires out of love for their wives and children. Paul actually spends more time admonishing the husbands than the wives, calling them to be submissive and sacrificial in their love for their wives. (Ephesians 5:21, 25-33)

The bottom line is that in first-century Rome letting Christian woman assert their freedoms tended to hinder the gospel, but today it’s the opposite! If women are restricted from influence or leadership in any way it makes Jesus and God look bigoted and oppressive. Giving leadership opportunities to women is a matter of loving and honoring them, equal to men, and as we’ll discuss further, this is the truth that the Bible teaches.

(Mike Eerie, VOC podcast on “How to Read the New Testament on Women in Ministry.”)

Does the Bible Say Women Can’t Teach in Church Today?

In The Blue Parakeet Scot McKnight, an American New Testament scholar and professor of New Testament, says it’s a contradiction when in our churches we take one point in 1 Timothy 2:8-15 as a rule — women can’t preach or lead in church but must be silent — yet treat the other points as cultural. He says if the whole passage was taken as teachings for the church today then we wouldn’t allow men to attend church services without lifting up their hands in prayer and we’d enforce men not getting angry or having disputes in church meetings! And we wouldn’t let women have their hair styled and to wear gold or pearls as they worship God in church!

Thankfully, most Christians understand rightly that what’s essential in prayer is not raising hands, never being angry, or how we dress — it’s the attitude of our hearts toward God. We know that in other Scriptures the Bible permits expressions of anger and disputes, as long as this is done in loving and respectful ways. We also realize that the standards on how women dress changes in different cultures and historical time periods. In these cases we don’t apply Paul’s instructions as a general commandment so why do we when it comes to women speaking in church or giving leadership to men?

Or in 1 Corinthians 14:26-40 when Paul is talking about the need for orderly worship, before he says women are to remain silent in churches, he says, among other things, “When you come together, everyone has a hymn, or a word of instruction, a revelation, a tongue or an interpretation.” (verse 26, NIV) Probably most of us have never even attended a church service that implements each of those elements that Bible passage so why would we elevate the one about women not serving as teachers, pastors, or church leaders as if that’s a law but the other items are not?

In these two Bible passages, Paul is offering pastoral instructions about particular situations that relate to that group of people in that time and culture. In contrast, each passage also teaches a general principle that’s throughout the Bible and is clearly meant to be applied to everyone in any situation: 1 Corinthians 14 teaches on the importance of orderly worship in church services and 1 Timothy 2 exhorts men and women to be godly and holy. In these Bible passages Paul is addressing specific examples of problem behavior that needs to be corrected — he’s not giving a general rule that all women in all churches should always be quiet and never serve in church leadership.

Paul’s Teaching on Women in the Church

N.T. (Tom) Wright, a bishop in the Church of England and an internationally renowned evangelical New Testament scholar, says in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Men, Women, and the Church “we have seriously misread the New Testament passages” that frame the debate on women in church leadership. Before unpacking those passages, he uses Galatians 3:28 to introduce Paul’s theology as it relates to gender.

Galatians 3:28

Paul’s theses in this Scripture passage, and elsewhere, is that all people can be part of God’s family through faith in Christ Jesus. Galatians 3:28 is the most commonly cited bellwether verse to assert this. “Many Bible versions actually mistranslate this verse,” according to Tom, “to read ‘neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, neither male nor female.’ That is precisely what Paul does not say.” That “flattens out” the translation. “What he says is there is neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, no male and female.”

By calling for “no male and female” he’s not integrating or obliterating gender distinctions, rather he’s eliminating the privileged position of men in the true family of Abraham, the Christian society. He’s insisting on male and female equality while retraining the essential and glorious uniqueness of each.

1 Corinthians

The cultural context helps us understand what Paul means when he asks women in church services to be silent and to inquire of their husbands at home (1 Corinthians 14:34-35). Citing Ken Bailey’s work, Tom Wright explains that in the ancient Middle East (and still today in some places) men and women sit on separate sides of the church and the minister speaks in formal or classic Arabic, which the men know, but most of the women do not since they speak only the local dialect. They get bored and talk amongst themselves, getting louder and louder. Finally, the frustrated preacher bellows, “Women, please be quiet!” They turn their volume to a whisper, but slowly get louder and the cycle repeats. Then after the church service wives ask their husband to share what the pastor taught on.

This scenario fits Paul’s main message in 1 Corinthians 14 which is urging there to be order and decency in church worship services. This is the general principle which he applies to the specific situations of disorder in the Corinthian churches in which there was public speaking in tongues without interpretation and women in the congregation speaking out of turn during the minister’s message. As it relates to church services, the principle of order and decency transfers to churches in our culture today, but the concrete instructions on interpreting tongues and women being silent probably do not. (1 Corinthians 14:40)

Earlier in this same letter, Paul also seems to put down women by saying, “Now I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God” (1 Corinthians 11:3, NIV).

Wright says there are two reasons why we misunderstand this verse. First, the word “head” does not refer to authority but to source, like the headwaters of a river. He’s referring back to the creation story in which woman was made from the side of man (Genesis 2:20-23). Secondly, “[Paul’s] main point is that in worship men should follow the dress and hair codes [in their culture] which proclaim them to be male and women the codes which proclaim them to be female.”

In other words, it’s essential to worship of God that we bring our authentic self, including our gender, and that we do this in a way that honors the Lord. In that culture, for women to “let their hair down” in church would’ve been like women in our culture wearing bikinis to church! Disciples of Jesus don’t draw attention to themselves but to God.

In part of Paul’s discussion about dress and hair etiquette, he makes a comment that really helps us understand his later instruction to women during church services being silent and submissive to their husbands. He says, “And every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head.” (1 Corinthians 11:5, NIV) He’s acknowledging that it’s a normal practice for women to speak out loud in church services by praying and prophesying. So we can be sure that three chapters later he’s not making a blanket prohibition from women speaking in church.

Furthermore, Gilbert Bilezikian, a leader in the establishment of the Willowcreek megachurch near Chicago, IL, teaches that Paul in his catalogs of spiritual gifts to be used in the churches ranks prophesy ahead of teaching so we can say that if he blesses women to speak prophecies in church then he certainly blesses them to teach from the Bible (Romans 12, 1 Corinthians 12, and Ephesians 4).

1 Timothy 2

Tom (NT) Wright recalls a time that he was preaching in a church and read Paul’s words in 1 Timothy 2: “A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent.” (verses 11-12, NIV). A woman near the front of the sanctuary was so offended that she exploded in anger, disrupting the whole service! It’s no wonder: she heard an oppressive God saying to her: “You can’t teach or lead in church. Don’t even speak!”

The Bible seems to be degrading women into second-class citizens. And the chapter seems to get even worse! Women aren’t allowed to dress attractively, they’re daughters of Eve, the original troublemaker, and mostly what they’re good for is having babies! This Scripture is the one that has most often been used to say that women should not teach or lead in a church.

Actually, Paul’s main point here, according to Tom Wright, is that women should be allowed, along with the men, to study and learn so that they can become teachers and leaders. The “full submission” in this verse is usually taken to mean to men, but it’s probably to God, to the gospel, or to learning. Paul is actually elevating women who usually weren’t given opportunities to be educated. (This is still a great need as according to Christianity Today only one in five students at evangelical Christian seminaries in America today are women.) But in first-century Rome it was a dangerous message that needed to be qualified because it would naturally be associated with the widespread cult of Artemis, a Greek goddess with an enormous temple in Ephesus. All the priests were women and “sacred sex” was part of the cult-worship.

What about the other points in this Scripture that seem offensive to women? In his instructions about women dressing modestly, Paul is simply asking them to respect the household codes of the day and focus on adorning themselves with good works that draw people’s attention to God. In the reference to Eve and childbirth, his point is that becoming a mother is not a curse or punishment from God as some think, but that salvation through faith in Christ is for all, women and men alike. 

Going back to the most controversial verses, Tom Wright summarizes the results of his Biblical scholarship on this matter by translating 1 Timothy 2:11-12 this way: “[Women] must be allowed to study undisturbed, in full submission to God. I’m not saying that women should teach men, or try to dictate to them; they should be left undisturbed.”

(See N.T. Wright’s paper on “The Biblical Basis for Women’s Service in the Church” presented in 2005. See also Gilbert Bilezikian’s book Beyond Sex Roles: What the Bible Says About a Woman’s Place in Church and Family, published in 1985, which makes similar points as Tom Wright and covers many additional Bible passages.)

Examples of Women Leaders in the Bible

Scot McKnight in The Blue Parakeet insists that in the discussion about women in church leadership too much attention gets put on the two controversial passages of 1 Corinthians 14 and 1 Timothy 2. He says the more forceful argument is to look at the “What Did Women Do” passages in the Bible. In the Old and New Testament, we find many examples of women exercising leadership gifts and authority (including over men) as judges, prophets, teachers, apostles, and deacons. If this is what is done in the Bible, even in the New Testament churches, then we surely ought to follow suit in our churches today.

Books like Her Name is Woman by Gien Karssen and All the Women of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer provide many examples of prominent women leaders in the Bible. This is particularly surprising because the eras in which the Bible was written were Patriarchal cultures. For instance, in the first century, Greco-Roman and Jewish societies women were the property of men and were limited to the domestic roles of wife and mother. Rarely were they educated or given prominent roles. Yet, Jesus and his apostles esteemed women greatly, taught them, and gave them leadership roles.

Women Leaders in the Old Testament 

Briefly surveying the Old Testament we find some prominent female leaders like Moses’ sister Miriam, Sara the mother of all nations, Judge Deborah who led Israel’s government and military, Hannah the mother of Samuel who prophesied of the Messiah, the Queen of Sheba who sought Solomon’s wisdom and a millennia later was memorialized by Jesus Christ, Huldah who was a prophetess to King Josiah, and Queen Esther who saved the Jews from genocide.

Also, we might list the Old Testament mothers who are listed in the genealogies of Jesus Christ, even though it was the custom only to name the fathers: Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Uriah’s wife (Bathsheba), and Mary.

Women Leaders in the Ministry of Jesus

In the gospel stories of Christ, women play central roles. Here are a few examples:

Elizabeth was a priest’s wife, known as a righteous woman. Into her old age, she suffered from not being able to have children, but she believed the angel’s promise and became the mother of John the Baptist. She offered hospitality and spiritual mentoring to Mary. (Luke 1:5-20, 23-25, 39-80)

Mary’s testimonies and teachings surely inspired Luke’s first two chapters in his gospel and Jesus’ great reversal message that in God’s kingdom the poor become rich and the weak become strong (Luke 1-2; Matthew 5:3-12).

Anna was a prophetess in the Jerusalem temple and one of the first to proclaim Jesus as the Messiah. (Luke 2:36-38)

Mary of Bethany didn’t stay in the kitchen with Martha and the women but crossed the cultural gender line to join Jesus and the circle of men. She was “sitting at his feet,” which is a way of saying that Jesus accepted her as his student so she could learn how to become a teacher like him. (Luke 10:38-42)

Mary Magdalene, Joanna (wife of Herod’s manager), Mary the Mother of James, Susana, and other women were leading disciples of Jesus. They traveled with him at times and provided him and his community with hospitality, financial support, and encouragement. They were the first evangelists of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and taught Peter, James, John, the other male apostles and leaders, and many other people. (Luke  8:1-3, 24:1-7)

The Samaritan Woman was an adulteress who received Christ and became an evangelist, leading many in Samaria to trust the Lord. She paved the way for the revival that the Apostle Phillip (one of the twelve) brought there after the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ. (John 4:4-26, 39-42; Acts 8:4-8)

Women as Leaders in the Early Church

There are many women who served as leaders in the first churches and some are named in the Bible.

Female prophets were common in New Testament churches (prophets were high-level leaders, second only to apostles). They served as Holy Spirit anointed, truth-telling teachers. Peter affirmed women prophets in his Pentecost sermon (quoting Joel’s ancient prophecy) and Paul sanctioned it also. (Acts 2:16; 1 Corinthians 11:5)

Women in Damascus were prominent disciples of Jesus in “The Way.” Because of their prominence, Paul targeted them, along with men, to be imprisoned, persecuted, or even killed by Saul of Tarsus. (Acts 9:1-2)

Tabitha (Dorcas) was a widow with a profitable business as a seamstress in Joppa. She became a prominent disciple of Jesus, known for her good works and leading a ministry to care for other widows. When she died from a sickness Peter raised her from the dead! (Acts 9:36-42)

Lydia was a successful business entrepreneur in Philippi who was a leader in a women’s prayer meeting that met at the river (like an informal synagogue). She was Paul’s first convert in Europe and helped establish its first church, which probably met in her home. (Acts 16:11-15, 40)

Philip’s Four Daughters were unmarried and devoted to serving the Lord as prophets in Caesarea. They also had a ministry of hospitality, including to the Apostle Paul. (Acts 21:8-9)

Phoebe was a deacon, helper, and benefactor who ministered to many, including Paul himself. She may have been the leader of a house church or a legal expert (which is the meaning of “helper”). (Romans 16:1-2)

Priscilla (wife) and Aquila (husband) were commended by Paul as co-pastors of a house church in Corinth and probably she was the stronger leader because usually her name is mentioned first. She and her husband provided corrective teaching to the Apostle Apollos and he received it. In fact, she was so honored by Paul that out of 26 named people in Romans Paul lists her first! (Romans 16:3-5; Acts 18:26) Furthermore, she is one of four leaders (perhaps elders or pastors) who is specifically greeted and appreciated in Paul’s second letter to Timothy (2 Timothy 1:2; 4:19).

Junia, the wife of Andronicus, was named by Paul as “outstanding among the apostles.” She was a prominent Christian leader and missionary who helped establish and lead one or more churches. (Romans 16:7)

Euodia and Syntyche were female church leaders honored by Paul as his “co-workers” which may have meant they were apostles (church planters). (Philippians 4:2-3)

Lois and Eunice taught Timothy in the ways of the Lord. Later Paul also mentored him and he became a pastor (2 Timothy 1:5).

Deaconesses (female deacons) served in official ministry positions in the New Testament Church (1 Timothy 3:11). Early Church Fathers, including Clement and Ignatius, appointed women as deaconesses in their churches.

Early Church History

In the first generations of the Church, the Bible attests to women being in leadership roles. However, there was controversy about this that was addressed in the Council of Laodicea in the 4th Century (about the year 360). Sadly, from my perspective, this council banned the ordination of women elders in Christian churches. Cannon 11 reads: “It is not allowed for those women who are called ‘elders/presbyters/priests’ (presbytides) or ‘women presidents’ (prokathēmenai) to be ordained in the churches.”

This historical evidence shows that in the early Church there were many cases of women serving as official elders and leaders in local churches, despite the surrounding culture’s bias against this. We see the same thing in the Bible. Jesus, Paul, and other apostles and prophets of the Bible have the wisdom and courage to do what is right and loving, even though the culture around them doesn’t support it. That’s being salt and light (Matthew 5:13-16).

Tragically, on this issue I believe we’re in the opposite situation: the secular world is showing more regard and honor for women than many of our churches!


In this Soul Talks episode, Women in Ministry, Bill and Kristi continue to unpack this crucial conversation.

41 responses to “Women as Pastors, Elders, and Leaders in Bible-Based Churches

  • Thank you so much for this article, I was ordained as a Pastor in one of our chapter churches last year 2019, but before I was ordained, I am already teaching in our Main Church for 2 years as I finished my training and studies under the Senior Pastor (a male). When he ordained me, I ask him, what would I say to those who don’t acknowledge women in the Pastoral ministry which is based in 1 Timothy 2? He answered me, that during that time, women are dominating men and their husbands but our conversation did not go deeply. But now I came up again to this point, I still want a solid answer as I am starting to shepherd our church. I also notice in many churches, many women have potentials in leadership thus many of them were given a responsibility which is way heavier than men. My point of view is that is because of culture today. Wearing head covers and not cutting hairs are not applicable to many. As for me, I did not choose this path but God chose us to this calling and I will do my best by the grace of the Lord and by His Spirit not by my might nor by power, to shepherd the flock He entrusted to me. Thank you so much for your article, I don’t see it feminist but I see it spirit-filled. God bless you and Kristi!

  • The world is indebted to so many wonderful women who have given their lives for sake of the Gospel. Adoniram Judson’s wife Ann is one fine example. When Adoniram felt called to Burma, it was Ann who joined hands with her husband and went and died. Betsy Stam is another who went to China and gave her life. Also to be recognized and praised are the many mothers who have raised fine men who have made a mark in history for the Gospel. John Wesley’s mom Susanna, Spurgeon’s mom Eliza are a couple. These mothers are the real heroines.
    From the standpoint of women teaching:
    In Titus chapter 2 verse 3 and 4, Paul calls on older women to teach and train younger women.
    Where is the specific command or calling that women must preach or shepherd the church? I view the task of preaching in the New Testament as public proclamation, witnessing, heralding, exhorting.

  • Thank you for this article. I left the church when they told me I couldn’t preach simply because God made me a female instead of a male. Having to argue with my school principal to take auto mechanics and technology was enough. When I learned men were Fathers and the only woman to be called a Mother (most recently) had to live on the street and save lives with first aid, I was stunned.
    Either God made a mistake making me a female or religions are simply wrong. When I asked my parent’s religion if I could preach if I had a sex- change, he said no. I said good-bye to religion. I only attend services with gender equality. If we can be separated by gender then why not vision, hearing, hair color, race, place of origin…. as well? It can be difficult to preach without vision and hearing. Are there restrictions there? Judge one physical characteristic, you should judge them all.
    Your article has given me more defense against my sexist family and friends. Thank you.

    • Renee, I’m glad the article was encouraging and affirming for you as a woman serving God. Thanks for sharing your story because other readers will relate to it.

      There are reasons for encouragement on this issue. Kristi and I recently watched a video of William and Catherine Booth who started the Salvation Army ministry in England in the 19th Century. Their pastors and preachers were called “officers” and more than half were women. There are been many spiritual mothers in church history. The book Kristi and I are writing now on the Stages of Grace features some of them. Stay tuned to our blog for information on this. Also, there are many Bible-believing churches today that support women in leadership. Just this week Kristi and I led a retreat for a church staff that has women pastors and preachers.


  • Bruce Semien
    Bill I would like to thank you for this article. It confirms what’s been in my soul, on what GOD would have His children doing to draw the lost children of this world. We are busy fighting for control of one another, and the old guard speaking about Eve being deceive but the Serpent but Adam was on a Fishing trip, Basketball Game, or Football Game, he was right there with Eve, and could have stop her at any time. Not only that, when God asked him what happened, he blamed the Serpent, the Woman GOD gave him. Which means he blamed GOD, AND DIDN’T EVEN BLAME HIMSELF. Thank you and Be Blessed.

  • Since this article is mostly about women teaching and those commands my question is RE: 1 TIM 3:2 and Titus 1:6, how do you specifically address “husband of one wife”? So all teaching passages aside, how do you get around the gender issue for those offices described there?

    • Clearly, Paul is writing to men there. I’m simply making the case that in many other places the Bible honors women in leadership roles and that these Scriptures are providing instructions, not commands, for specific situations in that day and culture. The whole of the Bible does not give clear compelling instructions for male only spiritual leadership.

  • Paul gave a non-cultural reason/principle why he did not permit women in 1 Tim 2:13-14. Tom Wright’s interpretation does not cohere with this, nor can it be explained by egalitarianism.

    Unless 1 Tim 2:11-12 is explained through 1 Tim 2:13-14, the premises presented here would be inadequate. For these arguments can also be used to position Women as the heads of families.

    It is not about qualification or ability, but about order. There are wives who can lead better than their husbands but would God want them to lead or to submit to inferior leadership?

    For the record, i am not against women leadership in church. However, the circumstances in which Paul forbids women to teach or have authority over men, should be defined and avoided.


    • Thanks for sharing Alex. We need to include verse 15 too. Here’s the MSG on 1 Timothy 2:11-15: “I don’t let women take over and tell the men what to do. They should study to be quiet and obedient along with everyone else. Adam was made first, then Eve; woman was deceived first—our pioneer in sin!—with Adam right on her heels. On the other hand, her childbearing brought about salvation, reversing Eve. But this salvation only comes to those who continue in faith, love, and holiness, gathering it all into maturity. You can depend on this.”

  • I’m a Christian woman and I am seeking Gods truth His word and His ways to be obedient of what He wants. I believe the influence of the world around us has also influenced our church and how we see scripture and wanting it to somehow justify what we think is the right way of doing something. God has an order of things He set it up that way for His purpose. I have taught my children the Word and I have given testimonies and prophesied in church. I love the bible study I attend. God gives women so much and He knows we are just as important and valuable to His Kingdom as men are.

  • Thank you for your thoughts, and value of women in the Church. I am sorry to be known by my brevity, But why do so many focus on the one thing that a woman is not permitted to do? Almost anything that a man can be called to do is also permissible for women. In the garden of eden, the only command was to not eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. All sin resulted from that one desire.
    please reply.
    A brother in Christ,

    • Hi Wes, Thank you for sharing your view. We understand that this is the perspective of many. Bill offers another biblical possibility here. If you’re interested in reading more of how Bill and others come to this perspective, any of the books that are linked in this article will share even more in-depth. Blessings!

  • Hello, Blessings. You have effectively shown that women have, can, and will always play a significant role in family, and faith matters. That is not an issue. You have not yet shown any scriptural basis for women elders or pastors. It is not at all a sexist issue ,any more than God is a father and not a mother. When in doubt, scripture is the final authority.

  • All change involving gender requires some sort of accommodation from everyone who has a gender, and not all of that accommodation is obvious from every point of view. For examples, some women not in leadership prefer deep solidarity with a sisterhood of equals to shallower ties to a divided constituency of women, some leading and some led. And some men are perplexed that women who share in leadership do not share their commitment to “impersonal,” “objective,” “cut and dried,” “procedural,” “by the book” responses to presented problems. Opponents and proponents often both believe that the biblical support for their strongly-held views should be enough to enable others to just give up and live with them. This rarely, if ever, happens. It would be wise for churches to have some respectful and appreciative conversation about the emotions and transferences that have made the status quo what it is.

    And, are proponents just supporting the ministry of a few remarkably gifted Deborahs able to lead men, or are they also advocating that 52% or more of church leaders be qualified but not especially gifted women? In some debates, their words signify the former while their passion suggests the latter., sending a double message that makes sense to some and upsets others. Why? The cultures in these two scenarios diverge sharply, reflecting different evaluations of giftedness and masculinity in leadership. In some situations, it could be wise for proponents of more authoritative ministry from women to be clearer about what outcome they actually seek and to explain what links they see, if any, among governance and ministry, masculinity and giftedness.

  • I was the first full-time ordained female pastor at a large evangelical church about 20 years ago. They saw God’s call on my life as I began a ministry of serving those living with and dying from HIV/AIDS. As I took Jesus to their dying bedside, the senior pastor pulled me aside and asked me questions and set me on the path to ordination. The ministry grew and the church grew as well to several thousand. I was excluded from pastor prayer meetings though because I was the only woman and other types of pastoral support during this time. But I did lead a mission team to Africa to serve those with AIDS and as I look back on it (now 60 years old) I feel blessed that they took that step of faith and ordained me. It cleared a way for other women and many lessons were learned. Thank you for this blog, it is a blessing to me and many other women who are called to serve Jesus.

  • God gives us wisdom and talents. He made woman a helper to man. So women are supposed to be good helpers. Why are there so many arguments and demands for equality? Why is divorce so booming nowadays? Why do married couples struggle ? Isn’t it because people choose to disobey God and His Word, in terms of marriage, of Husband and Wife roles.

  • Dear Mr. Gaultiere,
    Thank you so very much for this article! I came upon this site while I was searching for a translation of the Bible that is both accurate as well as ‘friendly’ to women in leadership. I am so glad I found your article and website.

    I am a mature woman of 61 years, and while I have been serving in various capacities since I became a Christian in 1989, I have been an associate pastor for two years, and a Recorded (ordained) Minister of the Gospel through the Evangelical Friends (Quaker) Mid-America Yearly Meeting for one year this month. I appreciate deeply your contribution to the subject of women as leaders/pastors in the Church.

    As with others who have posted to your article, I spent much time in confusion when it comes to women in ministry. I was often told, ‘Kathie, it is obvious God is speaking to and through you. Remember, women are to be silent in church and women do not teach men.” I could wish that I had known of the many valid and biblical arguments against such teaching then; yet, perhaps I would not be what and who I am today had I not gone through the frustrations and opportunities to practice charity these issues brought about.

    I would like to know if you or your wife Kristi know of a translation of the Bible that is more accurate about women, and their leadership roles? I am thinking about translations that would not imply that Junia was a man, and would more accurately translate Paul’s commonly translated statement, “I do not allow a woman to teach” to what he actually stated, “I do not now allow a woman to teach”…

    Again, thank you for your article and your service to the people of God.

    • Thanks for sharing Katharyne. I don’t know of a translation like that, but you don’t need it. It’s applying a basic principle of Bible interpretation to put the three controversial New Testament texts on women in leadership into the context of the whole Bible’s teaching. Also to consider carefully the specific cultural situation. Common sense tells us that if the Bible endorses women as prophets (the greatest spiritual gift), judges/rulers, and apostles that they might serve as a pastor or an elder in many situations in our world today.

      I believe these perspectives give Biblical validity to qualified women being brought into church leadership.

  • I want to get more about the topic. Please help me to get resources about supporting women leadership.

  • Why God made women biologically different than men ? Galatians 3:28. is all about the love of God which is shared equally to all types of people. According to me it’s not talking about the leadership or the authority of men and women in a church. Let us not dishonor the word of God for our human desires in stead of honouring the standard or divine order what God has given to both men and women.

    • Thank you for sharing your view Arkkhit. Many of my colleagues and friends also believe the Bible teaches that women are not to be in leadership over men. This view used to be my position. In this article I’ve presented the view that Bible as a whole does support women in leadership, partnering with men, under Christ in his church.

  • Thank you Bill. I am a woman who has been in leadership roles at an evangelical church with the mission of transforming and empowering women to know and live out their identity in Christ. This ministry has grown and blossomed, but the larger and more visible it becomes, the more head pastoral leaders and elders have pushed this ministry (and me) into a corner and remained mute on questions of women in leadership. I have struggled wondering if there is something wrong with me. Am I too demanding? too quiet? Why have I been told how amazing my work is, how amazing the transformations, yet then I am told, “Sorry, we aren’t sure where you fit within our church?” Meanwhile . I see men with less training, less education, and a fifth of the ministry I’ve developed promoted to pastors. I am on the verge of giving up- of just pulling out of the church all together…not forsaking my faith, but letting go of the modern evangelical church that cuts off half of its population from “real” leadership and labels spiritually strong and empowered female leaders as a “conundrum.” Thank you. I needed this for my own soul and spirit in battling the “benevolent” and blind injustices of the modern evangelical church.

    • Angela, this is quite disappointing. I’m sad for you to be disrespected like this. I pray that God will help you work this out and be welcomed at the leadership table or that he’ll guide you to another church where your leadership will be valued.

  • Thank you for a great article Bill. I’m a new Christian, a woman, from an atheist family – one with many strong Christian values and an interest in the early church (Bible literate historian/writer mother)…

    I’m reading a book about the Abbess Hilda of Whitby who lead a 7th century mixed gender community – as well as uniting the churches of England amongst other achievements..

  • Thank you for putting so much effort and heart into writing this. It was a wonderful read! This cleared quite a bit up in terms of what cultures looked like then. I know that it was somewhat normal in Greek society to have female religious leaders, but was not as certain about other cultures and you did a wonderful job helping to clear it up. I also greatly appreciate that you pointed out a number of female leaders in the early church. I know Phoebe is one of my favorites to mention when someone says “women can’t lead!”

    God bless

  • I’m working through this issue and would like to ask …… what ought to happen if the woman is a divorcee.? In addition, so far as I am aware her children are not following Jesus, but she herself appears to be a Godly woman.

    • Church denominations/traditions handle this differently and that needs to be respected. Work within that context and process, Biblically and prayerfully. My opinion is that for a woman or a man who wants to be a pastor but has been divorced or has children who are not following Christ the issues are: (1) The divorce. Who initiated it and why? Is it resolved morally and emotionally? (2) The children. Is it good for them for their parent to be a pastor? (This is especially important if they’re still in the home.) Is the parent loving their children with “compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience” and forgiveness (Colossians 3:12-13). Parents aren’t responsible for their children’s choices, especially when the children are adults, but always they’re called to love them as Jesus would.

  • Thanks for this article. I believe that any woman can be gifted in the area of shepherding. The question is, is it necessary that they have the title to go with it? I believe the answer to be no. Although Paul speaks of cultural issues in his letters, I believe he also addresses structural issues within the church. It was accepted in that culture that men were to pastor God’s flock, hence why all we see are men pastors acknowledged. This does not mean that women’s roles are diminished because we are all gifted equally within the body of Christ. But what is more important here? Is it that women use their gifts within the church without a title? Or is it that important that a woman has to be given the title elder or pastor?

    If we take the approach that our culture accepts it so therefore the church should, then who’s standards are we following?

    This comes across maybe as me being a sexist person who wants to over power women. Well that is not true. Women can be gifted in the church as a shepherd and must be given liberty to be able to fulfil that ministry. But that is no reason to have to give her the title of pastor which clearly is given only to men in scripture, not because they are better, but because that is the order the Lord establishes.

    That’s all I’ll say. But thank you for the article

    • Thanks for sharing Adrian. Certainly the Bible is our guide and we minister to the culture from it. I respect your view and hermeneutic. At the same time my article offers another possibility.

  • I can across this site looking for something and I’m glad I did. I have been enlightened on some teaching, that I’ve struggled with for a long time.
    Thank you, for clearing these things up for me. I have not been called to preach, but to teach, and I love to teach. I’ve drawn back because I was taught being a woman I shouldn’t. Now I have these scriptures with an open mind and heart, with revelations. Thank you again.

  • I appreciate this article. I appreciate your support of women in ministry. Another book that I’m about half way through, but finding to be a very thoughtful part of the discussion on women in ministry is Gordon Fee’s book, Complementary without Hierarchy.

  • This article came in at a perfect timing. I am one of those who grew up in a church that stopped women from imagining the reality where women are equal with men. The insidious teaching has made me blind to see myself through the eyes of God. God is using your article as one of ways to restore my sight! Thank you Bill for taking time to call Hope out!

  • Bill, thank you so much for this article. As a woman, I have struggled for a log time with my call to ministry. I felt like I needed to hide or apologize for or defend the right to be in leadership because of the teachings and practices of the church I grew up in. God is continuing to set me free from this thinking. Your support of women in ministry helps to validate God’s call for me and for many women!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.